Wednesday, 31 December 2008

Queen Hatshepsut is Queen Sheba

The following is a quasi-simultaneous equation proof that Queen Sheba who visited Solomon of Israel in circa 950 BC was Queen Hatshepsut of Egypt's 18th dynasty.

I am now going public with the following claims:

'Hatshepsut' means "The Sign of the Sheba of the South";

The temple she built at Deir el-Bahari was constructed to reflect the words of Song of Solomon 2:14, 'You are in the clefts of the rock, in the secret places of the stairs'; and

The Tanaach's ('Old Testament') Queen Sheba of Ophir (I Kings 9:28 and 10:1) equates with Josephus Flavius' 'Egypt and Ethiopia' and the New Testament's 'Queen of the South'.

This sets the original Velikovsky thesis that 'Sheba is Hatshepsut' into a quasi mathematical framework like three sets of simultaneous equations solving unknown variables that appear in different sets of data.

A crucial development has been the announcement of "Punt merchandise discovered by Kathryn Bard and Rodolfo Fattovich on Egypt's Red Sea coast." Clearly this indicates it had been shipped bound for Lower Egypt from Lebanon or Israel.

A second and rather surprising development from a re-reading of the Hebrew text and grammar is the identification of Ophir (= Africa) as the geographical origin for Queen Sheba as stated in the Biblical record (actual Hebrew text).

These two new developments have pushed this framework into the position of virtual proof that Sheba and Hatshepsut are the same queen.

Egyptologists generally explain that 'Hat-shep-sut', or their preferred 'Hat-sheps-ut', means 'Foremost of Noble Women'. I agree 'Hat' can mean 'foremost' but it also means 'Sign', 'Leader' or 'Prophet'. However, if 'sheps' is translated "a noble", the suffix 'ut' being a determinative for a female plural, it possibly requires one to read what is actually an Egyptian 'sheb' as 'shep'. Quite often this is an issue because Egyptians then and now experience difficulty saying 'p' and tend to pronounce it as 'b'. However, whatever the reading really should be, the hieroglyphic determinative of a seated person strongly suggests that the Biblical word sheb sometimes translated "sit", is a better basis for studying the etymology of "sheb" as in 'Hat-Sheba-Sut' or "shep" as in 'Hat-Shepa-Sut'. It's also a better basis than a reading sepa (soper, scribe) which was our initial premise. As it happens, our initial premise can still be supported by Petrie’s discovery, a century ago, of the Office of the Records Keeper, the ‘Ra Shepses’. In the 'Ra Shepses', Petrie also reads 'p' rather than 'b'.

Whichever way we look at the etymology of shepa, seba, shepa or sepa administrators are normally seated (root word s-b) at a desk issuing or writing (root word s-p) orders, laws, decrees and other administrative communications. However, if the root word sheb was indicated by the ancient Egyptian scribe then the meaning 'noble woman' (presumably sheps) becomes even more dubious. It now seems far better to acknowledge this woman was the queen who administered (as in sheb) Egypt and Ethiopia.

Egypt and Ethiopia (including Sudan), constituting the ancient civilisation of Africa (Ophir, Auphirah), are 'South' of Israel of course. Hence the meaning 'Sut' as in Sut-en-bat (South and North) of ancient Egypt (Suten = Sudan). Thus a Sheba was one who ruled or oversaw a dominion, city, empire or group of soldiers (e.g., King David's Yo-Sheba-dech, II Samuel 23:8). Therefore, 'Hat-sheb-sut' means 'The Sign of the Queen (Law-maker) of the South' (variables; sign, queen, south).

Hatshepsut-Sheba was so awestruck by Solomon's temple that she ordered the construction of a copy specially located in a site (Deir el-Bahari, near Thebes) to reflect the words in Song of Solomon 2:14 (variables; clefts in the rock, secret tunnels, stairs).

Josephus Flavius, Gospels of Matthew/Luke and I Kings 9:28 to I Kings 10:1, all refer to the same geographical location (variables; Egypt/Ethiopia, The South, Auphirah-Ophir=Africa=Egypt/Ethiopia).

Finally, the Ethiopians named their Queen Sheba as 'Makara'. Hatshepsut's alternative name is Maat-Kare (pronounced Makare). In the Bible, “Shammah .. the Hararite" (2 Samuel 23:11) is Shammah the Harodite in 2 Samuel 23:25 and Hadar son of Ishmael in Genesis 25:15 is Hadad in I Chronicles 1:30. There are several other Biblical examples of this mistake showing that corresponding transcription errors confusing similar letters like resh and daleth in Hebrew and Phoenician occurred when the Ethiopians transcribed Hatshepsut's other hieroglyphic title i.e., 'Maatkare' or 'Makare' from Egyptian into the Ethiopian 'Makeda'.

The null hypothesis is that if we can find the body or mummy of Hatshepsut, then she cannot be Queen Sheba because this woman became a saint when she stopped believing her pagan Egyptian gods in favour of Jehovah of Israel. It is accepted that the bodies of saints are not disturbed on the basis of Rest-in-Peace. If Hatshepsut is not Sheba, then someone in Antiquity wanted to make it look as though she was. That raises even more difficult questions regarding the identity of the queen who built the temple at Deir el-Bahari. The temple was deliberately buried in rubble by Hatshepsut's successors. Only by 1948, ironically the year of Israel's resurrection, was the temple properly cleared and its hieroglyphs evaluated. Queen Sheba (Queen of the South) is identified in the Gospels as rising at the Resurrection and condemning the Jewish Academy which rejected the Messianic claims of Jesus. If we can identify Hatshepsut as Sheba, there are massive implications. That's probably why so much is invested in disguising her actual identity.

I am available for consultation at 00-64-0210 298 9320 or at or you can download my book, Memphis, Merneptah and Ramesses and the Winged Disk of Judah at:

3 April, 2017

Reconstructing Ancient Egyptian History

My name is Don Stewart.  To access all my research files please go to:

I am a former economist who is currently researching and writing about the reconstruction of ancient Middle Eastern History. There is mounting concern that Egyptologists and Archaeologists, and many 'experts' in other disciplines within The Academy have been knowingly suppressing the truth about chronology. Myself and others believe we can now prove that only a few of the dynasties that are said to have ruled Egypt (and Ethiopia-Sudan-Numibia) actually did. Furthermore, we believe there is now good evidence to show that Egypt's dynasties did not begin until circa 2200 BC.
  • Dynasties I-V (1-5) circa 2200-1950 BC gave way to Dynasties XI and XII (11 and 12) which presumably firstly welcomed the Jewish Patriarch Jacob (XIth, circa 1900 BC) and family (including Joseph who had already arrived there as a slave) then secondly, or later, persecuted them (XIIth, circa 1700-1500 BC). The last two pharaohs of the XIIth Dynasties were Amenemhat III who ruled for about 43 years and Amenemhat IV who presumably was pharaoh when the Red Sea disaster destroyed the Egyptian army.  Israel's Moses had to wait 40 years in the deserts of "Midian" (Medina) as he sat out  the long reign of Amenemhat III.  Three XIth dynasty kings named "Inyotef" or "Inyosef" or "Joseph" attest to the Biblical statement that "Joseph was a father to pharaoh" because the grateful Montuhotep I (first king of the XIth dynasty) named his son and heir after Joseph whose ability to interpret Montuhotep's dreams saved Egypt and many other countries from the effects of a seven-year famine.  Inyotef I and II likewise named their heirs "Joseph".  These two consecutive dynasties fit the requirement for the first to have kings named "Joseph" and for the next or second to have a king who lived for forty years to accommodate Moses' long 40-year vigil as a refugee in the Arabian deserts.  Only the XIth and XII meet these conditions assuming it is agreed they have been placed in the wrong centuries by the orthodox chronology.  No matter what century is given to the XVIII and XIX (18th and 19th) dynasties or dynasties XVII and XX which preceded or followed them, these dynasties simply cannot fit those two conditions.  They have no kings named "Joseph", although Rameses II of dynasty XIX  did rule for about 40 years.  The problem then is that the XIX was succeeded by the XX and Ramesses III with no massive intervening disasters as happened after the XIIth.
  • For 400-450 years [dynasties VII to X (7-10) and XIII to XVI (13-16)] circa 1500-1050 BC, the Hyksos (the Biblical Amalekites) then ransacked and overran the country until Kings Saul (circa 1040-1000) and David of Israel (circa 1000-970), probably assisted by the Ethiopians from the South, defeated Amalek-Hyksos. That defeat led to a friendship between the kingdoms of Egypt united with Ethiopia under the famous XVIII Dynasty (18th), Israel ruled by David and Solomon and the Phoenician city-states led by Hirams I and II of Tyre. Queen Hatshepsut [The Sign (H'at) of the Sheba (Shep) of the South (Sut)] was the Queen Sheba who left Egypt on a state visit to Israel and Phoenicia (Punt) in circa 950 BC.
  • After the demise of the XVIIIth Dynasty under Akhenaten and Tutenkhamen (circa 800 BC) and the demise of the divided kingdom of Israel which had earlier split into the North (Samaria) and South (Judah) in circa 930 BC, the Middle East gradually sank into decadence. A disaster in Iraq (Babylon, Sumer, Shinar, Mesopotamia) involving the failure of the fresh water systems (Euphrates and Tigris) to prevent salts destroying the soils, led to another exodus, this time of the Kurds or Chaldeans (a.k.a. Hittites) from Southern Iraq. The Assyrian city states merged into a powerful force in the wake of this crisis and they settled the refugee Kurd-Chaldeans in their current location (North Iraq, Iran and Turkey).
  • These destabilising forces led to the Chaldeans allying with the Scythians and Medes and destroying Assyria in circa 620 BC. Tyre and North Israel had been subjugated by Assyria. Egypt, prostrate after the demise of the XVIIIth Dynasty, and subject to invasions of Ethiopians or Carthaginians ('Libyans' or 'Phoenicians'), had looked to Assyria for support. The XIX Dynasty under Sety and Ramesses the Great emerged, possibly with Assyrian assistance, to control Egypt from circa 670 to 580 BC after which the foreigners Nebuchadnezzar the Chaldean, the Persians (500 BC), Greeks (300 BC) and Romans took over for good.
  • We submit that Ramesses the Great ruled Egypt from circa 650-610 BC not 1250 BC as is believed under the orthodox chronology. We believe this is proved by the fact that his successor Merneptah Baenre Meriamun Hotephirmaat (The Hophra of Jeremiah 44:30) wrote the famous Israel or Merneptah Stele which said, "Israel's Seed is destroyed; The Land razed to the ground". That statement could only be true of Israel in 610-586 BC when the Chaldeans after three successive invasions finally wiped the place out. Jeremiah's Lamentations is the parallel account to the Merneptah Stele. Merneptah did not write it in 1210 BC but in circa 586 BC if not that very year.
If you are interested in discussing this problem in our studies of History or in doing something about it, I look forward to your comments or suggestions by telephoning me at 00 64 0210 298 9320,  or by looking at my "Blessings" and other research material including the "3_D Aleph-Tav Bible Study course developed from the revised history and Hebrew Perspective in:

or email me at

3 April, 2017