Saturday, 21 May 2011

Middle East Political Upheavals 2011


In the wake of the worsening Iraqi and Syrian crisis (as at July 2014), it is useful to look at how reconstructed history (refer my book Memphis, Merneptah and Ramesses And the Winged Disk of Judahhelps explain modern history and ancient Biblical 'prophecies'.  The political upheavals (circa 2011-14) in Iraq and Syria (as well as Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Lebanon, Yemen), somewhat misleadingly described as "Arab nations" by most commentators, have often been described as "surprising" or "unexpected".  By July 2014 the Upheavals that began in Tunisia (2011) had centred on the Mahdi versus Caliph debate.  In Blessings 4Li to iii in the 3-D Aleph-Tav Bible Study section of the URL above for my Book "Memphis, Merneptah etc", this problem is explained.  There is a parallel problem within Christendom between Pre-Millennials and Post Millennials but they do not kill each other.  Neither the Caliphate, nor the Churches nor the scientists can save this world from its dilemmas.  Only Messiah can.  But who is correct in their theology about Messiahs and/or anti-messiahs? 

The one common thing the above nations share is the Arabic language.  But the people there are not all Arabs.  The Islamic faith(s) did originate in Arabia.  Those who are aware of the implications of the reconstructed ancient history (and political geography) will understand these places were once part of the hegemony of Tyre ("Put" in Ezekiel 38:5 in the Bible or "Punt" of the ancient Egyptians).  Ancient Tyre (of Lebanon) and her sister cities like Byblos ("Gebal" in the Bible) and Sidon once dominated the Mediterranean from the Rock(y) Island of Tyre in Lebanon to the great rock of Gebal and Tyre or "Gibraltar" at the west-end of the Mediterranean Sea.  The Tyrrhenian Sea, lying between Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and central Italy (Rome and Naples), is the original name for the  "Mediterranean".  Ancient Tyre (Hebrew Tsor, Tzor), like Britain, once ruled the waves.  Through its many colonies in places like Syracuse-Sicily; Sardinia, Cyrenaica and Tripoli in modern Libya; Memphis-Migdol in Egypt; "Daraa" where Syria's civil war began and Deir ez "Zor" in modern Syria, or even Turkey and Torquay (England, lit., The Keys  or Quays of Tyre); ancient Tyre brought (and bought?) many peoples together in cosmopolitan communities like modern London or New York.  All this in the millennium before Rome's ascendancy.

Apart from trade and commerce, these colonies were proud of their freedom from autocratic regimes as one of their most important raison d'etres.  Assyria, Egypt and Chaldea-Babylon (e.g., Nebuchadnezzar) had tendencies to become autocratic so people would move away and set up new societies in a still largely unexplored world.  In Israel, as the Bible often reports, the leadership also departed from its legal responsibilities and people left the "Land".  Today, in modern civilised countries governments once again are seen to abandon law enforcement except for the privileged elite.  However, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Syria and Yemen have suffered from much worse autocracy and the people there are rebelling rather more vehemently.  Modern Greeks, Spaniards (27% unemployment in April 2013) Cypriots and Portuguese are rather more timid in their protestations.

The ancient Jewish prophet Ezekiel (chapters 38:1 to 39:16), observing the events of his day (circa 600 BC), commented on a massive future invasion of Israel by a coalition of countries stretching like a crescent curving around Israel from the North, round the East to the South.  Modern commentators debate whether "Meshech, Tubal and Gog" refer to modern Russia, Georgia, Chechnya or to "Turkey", the ancient homeland of modern Russian tribes.  However, the modern-day identity of Persia (Iran) and Cush (Ethiopia, Sudan and other parts of Africa such as The Congo) are not subject to debate.   "Put" or "Phut" is usually, but rather misleadingly and quite narrowly, translated as "Libya".  This is where the prophecy gets more than interesting.

Reconstructed history says that Egypt's "Punt" refers to Tyre, Israel and to the hegemony that Tyre developed mainly through her alliance with ancient Israel.   The precise definition, or boundaries, was a moving feast depending on geo-political-economic realities throughout the millennium before Rome's domination.  By association and geography, Israel usually lay under this designation but when Ezekiel used the term Put-Punt he was primarily referring just to the Tyrian-Sidonian hegemony.  Essentially, "Punt" (or Put) was the bridge-land (punt, pont, pontoon) between the Continents (Africa and Eurasia).  To the ancient Egyptians, Put-Punt was the bridge-sea between the Atlantic-Mediterranean and the Pacific-Indian-Red Sea ocean systems.  It was the Kadesh-bridge (Holy Bridge) where God met Man, and reconciled with him, in the temple sacrifices inside the City of Jerusalem (or outside its walls in the ultimate case of Christ in 30 AD).

Ezekiel was writing from the perspective of a man who had seen his Land ( Hebrew "Eretz", or "Retinu" referred to by ancient Egyptians) destroyed by Nebuchadrezzar the Chaldean (or Nebu-Churd-ezzar the Kurd).  The ancient promise that God had given to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, which Muslims believe should have gone to Ishmael and/or Esau anyway, seemed to have been rescinded.  (Some Muslims might argue that promise had been returned to Ishmael/Esau).  Apparently, as people then thought and as some continue to do so to this day, Israel and its capital city would no longer be the future home of the descendants of Jacob (surnamed "Israel", the name he appears under in the Merneptah Stele).  Merneptah Baenre Meriamun Hotephir-maat said as much when he commented in his stele with the words "Israel's seed is destroyed; the land razed to the ground".  That statement supposedly written in 1210 BC was actually written in 586 BC.  That 600-year error explains why we have to reconstruct ancient history.  Likewise the Fall of Troy that led to Rome's establishment was in circa 780 BC not 1300 BC as the historians and Classicists claim.  But to return to the main subject ....

.... In May 2011, we had the United States President calling on Israel to abandon land to Palestinians while another American warned of Doom-Day.  NATO (or the North Atlantic Tarshish Organisation) defeated  the Tyrant of Sirte (or Tyrus-Tiris) but Libya now (2014) sits divided with rival factions facing each other across the Bay of Sirte (= Tyrus).  By 2013-14, Syria's troubles were escalating and worsening (with reports of sarin gas being used).  "Syria" is actually the old Tsoria or "Tyre" of the Bible.  But this is a misleading name given last century by the French League of Nations Mandate rulers who named the ancient Aram of the Bible - "Syria".  Nevertheless, it was at one stage part of the Hegemony of Punt-Tyre (Phut-Tyre, Put-Tyre).  Israel is back on the world stage as a viable nation-state as the 37th chapter of Ezekiel forewarned in the famous "Valley of Dry Bones Vision".  Since 1948,  "dem bones, dem bones, dem dry bones", as the traditional-pop song went, have been putting on sinews and flesh.  However, the spirit would seem to be absent so far.  For example, many Israelis frequently break Sabbath Laws.  Few in modern Israel apart from about 7,000 would consider one of the best candidates for Messiah, Jesus of Nazareth (Yeshua be Nazar-eth, Yeshua The Branch), as "The Prophet" that Moses wrote about in circa 1450 BC.

While that's happening in Israel (Ezekiel 37:1-8), we are witnessing extraordinary uprisings and very unsettled aftermaths (viz., Libya, Egypt) from the Maghreb to Syria.  This region is the remainder of the hegemony of ancient Tyre after she began losing (circa 800 BC) her Indian Ocean colonies in the wake of Assyrian and Chaldean pressure that drove Tyre to concentrate on more intensive westward expansion (from circa 700 BC) and abandon Eastern ("East of Suez") bases such as Sur on Oman's coast or Somalia which will probably also join in this invasion as a member of both "Cush" and  one-time Indian Ocean naval-base/port for ancient Punt (Put or Phut).  The situation Ezekiel saw in his day (circa 600 BC) led him under spiritual inspiration to foresee a future time (Ezekiel 38:1 to 39:16) when the nations of ancient Tyre's hegemony or the "Phut/Put" of his day would join Africa-Cush, Persia-Iran and Turkey (and-or the aforementioned Russian nations) in an invasion of Israel.  Most commentators and theologians do not realise that the "Put" of Ezekiel 38:5 is these aforementioned Mediterranean Coast 'Arab' nations most in the news in 2011 - 2014.  Iran is imploding and its currency hyper-inflating as Muslims, Zoroasterians and Zenophobes clash with Secularists or as outside nations impose nuclear-ambition-related trade sanctions.  Thus a huge invasion of Israel by disgruntled masses from these regions, and from the harsh Russian-East European zone full of anti-Semitic rhetoric, would not in the least be a surprise.  The chaos in these places may have to rumble on for a good while.  Whatever happens in the short or medium term, these are the nations in Ezekiel's view (or panorama). 

Many hope the unrest from Tunis (ancient Carthage of Tyre) to Derra in Syria (Tyre in Tsoria, Hebrew Tsor) will deliver stable democratic government and more civil attitudes to modern Israel.  Equally, or perhaps more likely, it could lead to much deeper chaos.  The ancient Egyptian pharaohs knew about 'chaos'.  One title they used, "Maat" as in "Hotephir-maat", means "to bring order out of chaos in Africa (Ephir = Ophir = Aufirah)".  "Maat" is probably the origin of the name Mahdi the Islamic equivalent of the Messiah.  The role of the Mahdi is to bring order out of chaos but some Muslims, even perhaps a majority, believe this can be achieved through the Caliphate.  Thus the debate raging now in the Middle East involves asking what type of government, if any, can bring peace.   Will stable government arise out of these events?  That's unlikely when one considers the many problems the world, the Middle East in particular, now faces.   And, despite the best intentions of people in these countries to bring order, the Bible states that God himself will "put hooks into the jaws" of these countries and drag them into battle against Israel.  Reconstructed history (refer other articles in this blog) only reinforces how bad our problems are becoming.  The essence of the Biblical statement about Man eating from the Tree of Good and Evil knowledge is reflected in the incredibly technically complex issues facing world leaders today.  A touch-tronic computer, like those today produced by the world's largest company (Apple Computers), may well have been the 'fruit' (good and evil knowledge not apples) Eve said should not even be "touched" lest one consume of its 'delicacies' which have turned out to be, on balance, more poisonous than delightful (c.f., nuclear waste, side-effects of pharmaceuticals, political nonsense, bribery, financial corruption, etc., etc). 

The prophecy of the invasion of Israel and subsequent miraculous destruction of the invading hordes by God, reported by a member of the same group of scribes whose forbears back to Adam gave us the account of the Garden of Eden etc., (i.e., the Bible), sets the stage for other events.  Out of the destruction of Israel's opponents will emerge an international political imbalance and quite logically one would think.  Alternatively, it may also see  the rise of the Biblically-prophesied dictator from "The Sea" (Mediterranean).  This man, also born of a Roman woman (as a candidate we can identify happens to be) will rule the world.  This man is commonly known as Six,Six,Six.  That unusual title is derived by taking his Roman name, transliterating the Latin letters of it into Hebrew (not every letter in Latin has a number as Hebrew, and only Hebrew does), and then counting the value according to the numbering system that accompanies each letter of the Hebrew alphabet.  Such a person with a name, both fitting this special equation and meaning "Majesty-King of Kings", does exist today.  However, he is only just about to enter his teens (September 2014) so there are some interesting timing possibilities here that Biblical prophecy allows for.  First of all, now that the prophecies regarding Israel's first return to "The Land" from a world-wide diaspora (Isaiah 11:11 refers to a second such return but that is when the Messiah brings them back) are being fulfilled, we await the invasion referred to in Ezekiel chapters 38:1 - 39:16.

The Church of Christ has a responsibility to warn the world of the possible consequences of these developments.  At some stage, the Church of Christ is 'taken out' ("The Rapture") and will no longer be present to warn the world.  However, it might be argued, with so few real or true believers, and cranks, "tares" (Matthew 13:25) and counterfeit messengers abounding, that event known as "The Rapture" may go largely un-noticed.  Whatever, "The Rapture" must be clearly distinguished from "The Second Coming" and both events from "The End of the Universe" which happens in order to establish a new universe untainted by the Sin of Satan (the desecration of the "Mineral Universe") and the Sin of Adam (the desecration of the "Flesh" and plant world).  Ancient Mayan acolytes and modern American Doomsters are oblivious to these important distinctions and confuse different events and ages with each other.  In the practical sense, there is no such thing as the "End of the World", only the end of an age or regimen or governance system  in men's affairs.  In practical terms, the end of the world and universe is only a reality at the end of the forthcoming Messianic Kingdom.  So doomsayers, Mayan or otherwise, are a non-event. 

The public deserves a sound explanation of the Biblical account.  However, distorted history seriously undermines proper study (exegesis) of the Bible, especially of its prophecies.  That is why so many confusing explanations of many matters abound.  In the Bible, History and Prophecy are like a marriage.  They are one.  In the beginning all is prophecy but at the end all prophecies will become history.  Each successive generation reading the Bible sees more and more history completed and less and less prophecy remaining unfulfilled.  To successfully judge where one is on that time-line or history-prophecy continuum, one needs to know the correct history.  The distortion to world history caused by the egregious errors in ancient Egyptian history, and concomitant or resulting feedback confusion/noise, is a foundation or paradigm problem.  In these comments, I have tried to explain the confusion of May 21, 2011 ff (and minor edits/updates August 2011, April 2012, September 2012, April 2013, January 2014, July 2014).  For believers and unbelievers, the main event to be watching for at the moment (as at July 2014) is not "The End of the World" but what is happening in North Africa, in other parts of Africa, in Iran and in the regions of Turkey, Chechnya, Georgia (both phonetically related to the Hebrew Gog) and the further North.

For believers (The Church of Christ), the always-imminent Rapture remains the prime expectation although that "imminency" probably only became 'live' with the return of the Jewish nation to the world stage as even the British Puritans of the early 17th century were only too well aware. 

Email Don at ttdonaldstewart@hotmail.com

Phone Don at  00 64 (0)210 2989 320

Don's Book at:  

http://192.185.112.214/~don/book/


Don's Other Blog (re Mary Magdalene): 

http://donaldstewart-researcher-mary-magdale.blogspot.com/   

Tuesday, 13 January 2009

Memphis, Merneptah and Ramesses And the Winged Disk of Judah

The title of my first book is Memphis, Merneptah and Ramesses And the Winged Disk of Judah. The book is an analysis of William Flinders Petrie's excavation reports of his archaeological diggings at Memphis Egypt between 1908 and 1914.  [For a free copy, please download from the following URL/address: http://192.185.112.214/~don/book/ or email me at ttdonaldstewart@hotmail.com.  The size is 47.8 MB].I had been working on my book about Queen Hatshepsut-Sheba. If we can confirm this woman who ruled Egypt and Ethiopia was the same "Queen of Ophir" (Africa) who came to see Solomon in circa 950 BC, we will effectively dismantle the whole chronology currently used by Egyptologists to explain ancient Egypt's 'political' history. Also affected will be those of the many countries that dealt with Egypt in the Biblical Period. The stakes are high.

However, I stumbled across Petrie's excavation reports and realised he had actually found "Pithom and Ramesses" (Exodus 1:11). The conclusion I came to after studying them was that:
  • Pithom and Ramesses were two capital cities of ancient Egypt on the same site in two different eras (1500 and 600 BC), not two cities in the same era (1500 or 1300 BC) in two different sites.
As my study of these reports progressed, I also realised that Dr Velikovsky's apparently outrageous suggestion that the 19th and 26th dynasties were the same was precisely the problem affecting Professor Petrie's attempts at making sense of the stratigraphy at Memphis. He kept finding Ramesses II and Merneptah (19th dynasty, circa 1250-1200 BC) in the same level that Apries-Hophra (26th dynasty, circa 650-580) was supposed to occupy. Actually, instead of finding material linked to Apries-Hophra much more abundant than Merneptah's era, Petrie found things the other way around. I realised Merneptah's full name or Merneptah Baenre Meriamun Hotephir-maat provides the basis for the Hebrew and Greek "Hophra-Apries". Also, "hotephir-maat" is better written "Ho'ephir-maat". The 't' simply instructs the reader to emphasise both vowels. Of course, many readers will read "hotephir-maat".

These simple observations enabled me to see where ancient and modern historians went wrong. Thinking 'Pithom and Ramesses' (or "Raamses") of Exodus 1:11 indicated a king called "Ramesses" was contemporary with Moses, Egyptologists and historians before them placed Ramesses II and his son Merneptah in the 13th century BC after initially placing them in the 16th. Bible scholars later followed suit and shifted Moses from 1500 BC (at the Exodus) to 1300 to 1200 BC although that range proved difficult to sustain. Even Jewish monitors of the Hebrew calendar seem to have incorporated this 250-year re-adjustment into their age-old calendar (Year 5774 as at July 2014) which explains why it is about 244 years short of Usher's 4004 BC for Adam.

A close look at the Hebrew text of Genesis 47:11, Exodus 1:11, 14:2, Numbers 33:7, Jeremiah 44:1 and 46:14, revealed that later redactions where old scrolls were replaced and updated for changes in geographical and political circumstances, necessitated allowable but very slight amendments for clarity (c.f., Judges 19:10, I Chronicles 11:4). In 600 BC, Pithom became known as Ramesses. When the Carthaginians and Phoenicians had control of the city it became known as Migdol or Israel's nickname for "Tyre" (or Tower/Turret).

However, the verb 'to build' in the text of Exodus 1:11 necessitated the Israelites had to actually build both cities. How could this be possible unless two different sites were envisaged? By recognising they could be the same site but in two different eras and probably under different ruling powers, even foreign powers. The Hebrew language-text allows for this conclusion. The special definite article the scribes used for "the" in 'The Pithom and The Raamses' is the Hebrew eth (aleph, tav). It's technically or grammatically unnecessary or superfluous in this context. A definite article is not really needed in Exodus 1:11 anyway. The normal, more common or regular 'he' (the Hebrew letter for 'h') would suffice if a definite article was desired or thought necessary. This word (eth or the) is composed from the first and last Hebrew alphabetic letters (signs). Actually, in Exodus 4:8, 8:23 and 12:13 the word for sign (properly aleph, vav, tav) is also eth, the vav or 'u' being omitted. This suggests the scribes were also showing Israelites built Pithom (or Pit-mem = Mem-phit = Memphis) in 1500 BC (in the first place), and Raamses-Migdol, in the Phoenician-Carthaginian era, from circa 610 to 586 BC (in the last place). The latter Israelites were the 'renegade folk from Judah' trying to 'escape from Nebuchadnezzar'. Those, at any rate, were the words that Jeremiah, Israel's most unpopular prophet, gave to them.

A very difficult conundrum that has bedevilled scholars seems to be solved by this simple paradigm:

  • "Pithom and Raamses" were two cities on the same site (Memphis-Pithom) built in two different eras by the same ethnic group (Israelites); not two different cities, on two different sites, built in the same era by Israelites.
Budge's apparently discredited dictionary of Egyptian hieroglyphs shows an entry for Heri-Pitomai which he describes as a "suburb of Memphis". Searches for Pithom, under 'P', obviously would miss this entry as seems to have been the case for a century or so.
Furthermore, it seems the last two kings of the 12th dynasty, the titles "Amenemhat" numbers III and IV, were Moses' contemporaries instead of Ramesses II or III. Putatively, "Amenemhat" means "Leader (chosen?) of God (Amun)". Amenemhat is probably a title reflecting the concept "Divine Right of Kings". This is not a mystical term. Belief in the concept led to a civil war in England between 1642-49 and might do so again one day if Parliament does not behave itself and obey the Queen's Law. The Hebrew author probably did not wish to write the capital of this king with Amun in the text, for obviously pious reasons, so he shortened it to Pi (= place of) em-hat or 'Place of the leader'. That is what a capital city is. It is the residence (place) of the King (leader), his Government and Treasury (Miskenot). Only one city can be the true capital. That's why we also need to divide "Pithom and Raamses" as the same place with different names over two (very) different eras not as two different locations in the same era. Thus Pithom is actually:
  • Pi-em-H'at, or, accounting for variations in the way letter-signs were ordered (e.g., left-right, right-left, columns);
  • Pi-Th-em = Pithom.
Similarly for Memphis:
  • Mem-phis (Greek) = Memphit (Semitic) = Phit-mem = Pithom.
H'at from both Egyptian- and Hebrew-semitic has a range of meanings through 'sign' or 'prophet' to 'leader'.

Hatshepsut-Sheba used this term to describe her title as meaning "The Sign of the Sheba of the South". Other kings also used shepses which Petrie defined as the "Ra Shepses" or "Keeper of the Records" which is what kings and queens do.

However, in Hebrew sheb is used to describe a wide range of officials sitting or administering at their desks. In Egyptian (ancient and modern) there is a confusion in hearing 'p' or 'b'. So whether we should read shep or sheb in either Hebrew or ancient Egyptian is a guessing game. Other background information accorded by a correct interpretation of history is needed to interpret these subtle difficulties.

By using the Bible's chronology, many difficult enigmas can be resolved relatively simply. The current chronological mess in modern Egyptology differs little to the banking crises sweeping the world. Modern Egyptology and modern Economics are so-called sciences but they are now virtually worthless in their current states because they either got paradigms wrong or they ignored them if true.

The Winged Disk of Judah

Merneptah, who wrote on the Israel Stele (or Merneptah Stele), "Israel's seed is destroyed; the land razed to the ground", also displayed himself worshipping Ptah with "The Behudet Winged Disk" in the background. "Behudet" is 'Pi-' or 'B-ehudah-t'. The 't' is simply a plural like 's' in English. It means the land or people of Judah-Israel. The reason why Merneptah displayed this disk, a circle with wings stretching out to the left and right, is that the angel of God who destroyed Sennacherib's army in 700 BC apparently chose not to destroy Nebuchadnezzar in 600-586 BC. Instead the Jews had to go running back to Egypt for refuge. This reversed the events of 1500 BC: in Merneptah's opinion at least.

Of course, for that to make sense, Merneptah and Ramesses have to be shifted forward by 600 to 700 years. The "Israel" in Merneptah's statement refers to Jacob-Israel the ancestor of the Israelites (or Judeans) of 586 BC. The "seed" is the descendants of Jacob. They were cut-off or castrated as the Book of Daniel implies (Daniel 1:3, 8, 9, 11 ff). The castration of the Royal family was not quite complete as Merneptah, not unreasonably under the circumstances, surmised. A cadet branch of David through his son Nathan managed to escape the cut and, quite a few generations later, this branch sired a man named Heli who fathered Mary the Mother of Jesus. And that is why this information becomes so critical. This is historical evidence for the claims of the Old (really "First") and New (really "Last")Testaments in the Bible.

What drove the inclusion of this Egyptian symbol ("The Behudet Winged Disk"), in the book's title was the publication in Biblical Archaeological Review (Vol., 28 No., 4), in an article by Robert Deutsch, of a royal seal belonging to King Hezekiah of Judah (700 BC). It had the same object as Merneptah's except it also had six sticks branching out of the central disk to indicate six wings the object had. This was the six-winged angel Isaiah the Prophet reported seeing (e.g., or c.f., Isaiah 6:2).   This is embarrassing because it confirms an angel did destroy Sennacherib's army. There is no enigma to what happened at the end of the history described by the Assyrian (Lachish) frescos displayed at the British Museum.

The problem is embarrassing enough because the Israeli Antiquities Authority is trying to punish Mr Deutsch by convicting him for antiquities fraud. However, the real frauds, it would seem, are the chronologists in the Academy.

If you are interested in discussing this or want to talk to me about the issues, please email me at ttdonaldstewart@hotmail.com or phone 00 64 0210 298 9320 (vodafone network, New Zealand).

Wednesday, 31 December 2008

Queen Hatshepsut is Queen Sheba

The following is a quasi-simultaneous equation proof that Queen Sheba who visited Solomon of Israel in circa 950 BC was Queen Hatshepsut of Egypt's 18th dynasty.

I am now going public with the following claims:

'Hatshepsut' means "The Sign of the Sheba of the South";

The temple she built at Deir el-Bahari was constructed to reflect the words of Song of Solomon 2:14, 'You are in the clefts of the rock, in the secret places of the stairs'; and

The Tanaach's ('Old Testament') Queen Sheba of Ophir (I Kings 9:28 and 10:1) equates with Josephus Flavius' 'Egypt and Ethiopia' and the New Testament's 'Queen of the South'.

This sets the original Velikovsky thesis that 'Sheba is Hatshepsut' into a quasi mathematical framework like three sets of simultaneous equations solving unknown variables that appear in different sets of data.

A crucial development has been the announcement of "Punt merchandise discovered by Kathryn Bard and Rodolfo Fattovich on Egypt's Red Sea coast." Clearly this indicates it had been shipped bound for Lower Egypt from Lebanon or Israel.

A second and rather surprising development from a re-reading of the Hebrew text and grammar is the identification of Ophir (= Africa) as the geographical origin for Queen Sheba as stated in the Biblical record (actual Hebrew text).

These two new developments have pushed this framework into the position of virtual proof that Sheba and Hatshepsut are the same queen.

Egyptologists generally explain that 'Hat-shep-sut', or their preferred 'Hat-sheps-ut', means 'Foremost of Noble Women'. I agree 'Hat' can mean 'foremost' but it also means 'Sign', 'Leader' or 'Prophet'. However, if 'sheps' is translated "a noble", the suffix 'ut' being a determinative for a female plural, it possibly requires one to read what is actually an Egyptian 'sheb' as 'shep'. Quite often this is an issue because Egyptians then and now experience difficulty saying 'p' and tend to pronounce it as 'b'. However, whatever the reading really should be, the hieroglyphic determinative of a seated person strongly suggests that the Biblical word sheb sometimes translated "sit", is a better basis for studying the etymology of "sheb" as in 'Hat-Sheba-Sut' or "shep" as in 'Hat-Shepa-Sut'. It's also a better basis than a reading sepa (soper, scribe) which was our initial premise. As it happens, our initial premise can still be supported by Petrie’s discovery, a century ago, of the Office of the Records Keeper, the ‘Ra Shepses’. In the 'Ra Shepses', Petrie also reads 'p' rather than 'b'.

Whichever way we look at the etymology of shepa, seba, shepa or sepa administrators are normally seated (root word s-b) at a desk issuing or writing (root word s-p) orders, laws, decrees and other administrative communications. However, if the root word sheb was indicated by the ancient Egyptian scribe then the meaning 'noble woman' (presumably sheps) becomes even more dubious. It now seems far better to acknowledge this woman was the queen who administered (as in sheb) Egypt and Ethiopia.

Egypt and Ethiopia (including Sudan), constituting the ancient civilisation of Africa (Ophir, Auphirah), are 'South' of Israel of course. Hence the meaning 'Sut' as in Sut-en-bat (South and North) of ancient Egypt (Suten = Sudan). Thus a Sheba was one who ruled or oversaw a dominion, city, empire or group of soldiers (e.g., King David's Yo-Sheba-dech, II Samuel 23:8). Therefore, 'Hat-sheb-sut' means 'The Sign of the Queen (Law-maker) of the South' (variables; sign, queen, south).

Hatshepsut-Sheba was so awestruck by Solomon's temple that she ordered the construction of a copy specially located in a site (Deir el-Bahari, near Thebes) to reflect the words in Song of Solomon 2:14 (variables; clefts in the rock, secret tunnels, stairs).

Josephus Flavius, Gospels of Matthew/Luke and I Kings 9:28 to I Kings 10:1, all refer to the same geographical location (variables; Egypt/Ethiopia, The South, Auphirah-Ophir=Africa=Egypt/Ethiopia).

Finally, the Ethiopians named their Queen Sheba as 'Makara'. Hatshepsut's alternative name is Maat-Kare (pronounced Makare). In the Bible, “Shammah .. the Hararite" (2 Samuel 23:11) is Shammah the Harodite in 2 Samuel 23:25 and Hadar son of Ishmael in Genesis 25:15 is Hadad in I Chronicles 1:30. There are several other Biblical examples of this mistake showing that corresponding transcription errors confusing similar letters like resh and daleth in Hebrew and Phoenician occurred when the Ethiopians transcribed Hatshepsut's other hieroglyphic title i.e., 'Maatkare' or 'Makare' from Egyptian into the Ethiopian 'Makeda'.

The null hypothesis is that if we can find the body or mummy of Hatshepsut, then she cannot be Queen Sheba because this woman became a saint when she stopped believing her pagan Egyptian gods in favour of Jehovah of Israel. It is accepted that the bodies of saints are not disturbed on the basis of Rest-in-Peace. If Hatshepsut is not Sheba, then someone in Antiquity wanted to make it look as though she was. That raises even more difficult questions regarding the identity of the queen who built the temple at Deir el-Bahari. The temple was deliberately buried in rubble by Hatshepsut's successors. Only by 1948, ironically the year of Israel's resurrection, was the temple properly cleared and its hieroglyphs evaluated. Queen Sheba (Queen of the South) is identified in the Gospels as rising at the Resurrection and condemning the Jewish Academy which rejected the Messianic claims of Jesus. If we can identify Hatshepsut as Sheba, there are massive implications. That's probably why so much is invested in disguising her actual identity.

I am available for consultation at 00-64-0210 298 9320 or at ttdonaldstewart@hotmail.com or you can download my book, Memphis, Merneptah and Ramesses and the Winged Disk of Judah at http://192.185.112.214/~don/book/

Reconstructing Ancient Egyptian History

My name is Don Stewart. I am a former economist who is currently researching and writing about the reconstruction of ancient Middle Eastern History. There is mounting concern that Egyptologists and Archaeologists, and many 'experts' in other disciplines within The Academy have been knowingly suppressing the truth about chronology. Myself and others believe we can now prove that only a few of the dynasties that are said to have ruled Egypt (and Ethiopia-Sudan-Numibia) actually did. Furthermore, we believe there is now good evidence to show that Egypt's dynasties did not begin until circa 2200 BC.
  • Dynasties I-V (1-5) circa 2200-1950 BC gave way to Dynasties XI and XII (11 and 12) which presumably firstly welcomed the Jewish Patriarch Jacob (XIth, circa 1900 BC) and family (including Joseph who had already arrived there as a slave) then secondly, or later, persecuted them (XIIth, circa 1700-1500 BC). The last two pharaohs of the XIIth Dynasties were Amenemhat III who ruled for about 43 years and Amenemhat IV who presumably was pharaoh when the Red Sea disaster destroyed the Egyptian army.  Israel's Moses had to wait 40 years in the deserts of "Midian" (Medina) as he sat out  the long reign of Amenemhat III.  Three XIth dynasty kings named "Inyotef" or "Inyosef" or "Joseph" attest to the Biblical statement that "Joseph was a father to pharaoh" because the grateful Montuhotep I (first king of the XIth dynasty) named his son and heir after Joseph whose ability to interpret Montuhotep's dreams saved Egypt and many other countries from the effects of a seven-year famine.  Inyotef I and II likewise named their heirs "Joseph".  These two consecutive dynasties fit the requirement for the first to have kings named "Joseph" and for the next or second to have a king who lived for forty years to accommodate Moses' long 40-year vigil as a refugee in the Arabian deserts.  Only the XIth and XII meet these conditions assuming it is agreed they have been placed in the wrong centuries by the orthodox chronology.  No matter what century is given to the XVIII and XIX (18th and 19th) dynasties or dynasties XVII and XX which preceded or followed them, these dynasties simply cannot fit those two conditions.  They have no kings named "Joseph", although Rameses II of dynasty XIX  did rule for about 40 years.  The problem then is that the XIX was succeeded by the XX and Ramesses III with no massive intervening disasters as happened after the XIIth.
  • For 400-450 years [dynasties VII to X (7-10) and XIII to XVI (13-16)] circa 1500-1050 BC, the Hyksos (the Biblical Amalekites) then ransacked and overran the country until Kings Saul (circa 1040-1000) and David of Israel (circa 1000-970), probably assisted by the Ethiopians from the South, defeated Amalek-Hyksos. That defeat led to a friendship between the kingdoms of Egypt united with Ethiopia under the famous XVIII Dynasty (18th), Israel ruled by David and Solomon and the Phoenician city-states led by Hirams I and II of Tyre. Queen Hatshepsut [The Sign (H'at) of the Sheba (Shep) of the South (Sut)] was the Queen Sheba who left Egypt on a state visit to Israel and Phoenicia (Punt) in circa 950 BC.
  • After the demise of the XVIIIth Dynasty under Akhenaten and Tutenkhamen (circa 800 BC) and the demise of the divided kingdom of Israel which had earlier split into the North (Samaria) and South (Judah) in circa 930 BC, the Middle East gradually sank into decadence. A disaster in Iraq (Babylon, Sumer, Shinar, Mesopotamia) involving the failure of the fresh water systems (Euphrates and Tigris) to prevent salts destroying the soils, led to another exodus, this time of the Kurds or Chaldeans (a.k.a. Hittites) from Southern Iraq. The Assyrian city states merged into a powerful force in the wake of this crisis and they settled the refugee Kurd-Chaldeans in their current location (North Iraq, Iran and Turkey).
  • These destabilising forces led to the Chaldeans allying with the Scythians and Medes and destroying Assyria in circa 620 BC. Tyre and North Israel had been subjugated by Assyria. Egypt, prostrate after the demise of the XVIIIth Dynasty, and subject to invasions of Ethiopians or Carthaginians ('Libyans' or 'Phoenicians'), had looked to Assyria for support. The XIX Dynasty under Sety and Ramesses the Great emerged, possibly with Assyrian assistance, to control Egypt from circa 670 to 580 BC after which the foreigners Nebuchadnezzar the Chaldean, the Persians (500 BC), Greeks (300 BC) and Romans took over for good.
  • We submit that Ramesses the Great ruled Egypt from circa 650-610 BC not 1250 BC as is believed under the orthodox chronology. We believe this is proved by the fact that his successor Merneptah Baenre Meriamun Hotephirmaat (The Hophra of Jeremiah 44:30) wrote the famous Israel or Merneptah Stele which said, "Israel's Seed is destroyed; The Land razed to the ground". That statement could only be true of Israel in 610-586 BC when the Chaldeans after three successive invasions finally wiped the place out. Jeremiah's Lamentations is the parallel account to the Merneptah Stele. Merneptah did not write it in 1210 BC but in circa 586 BC if not that very year.
If you are interested in discussing this problem in our studies of History or in doing something about it, I look forward to your comments or suggestions by telephoning me at 00 64 0210 298 9320, looking at my "Blessings" on http://192.185.112.214/~don/book/  or emailing me at ttdonaldstewart@hotmail.com