Saturday, 21 May 2011

Middle East Political Upheavals 2011

The updates below are current as at  18 April,  2017

For all Don's publically accessible research material go to:

For the purpose of this blog, the "Middle East" is defined as stretching from Tunisia to Afghanistan and from Astana in Kazakhstan to the South Sudan.  One might even rope-in Congo Kinshasha into that vast volatile and vexatious group.

Firstly, a brief explanatiom of the essays listed across to the right hand side of this Blog-page.  These essays explain why we are re-writing the ancient histories of that vast region to properly explain why this region is in such trouble.

This blog has four of these 'background' essays for the reader to view.  They are dated "2008 (2), 2009 (1) and  2011 (1)":

(1)  In 2008, I published "Reconstructing Ancient Egyptian History".  That 'essay'  has been updated over the years and is regarded as current (April 2017) by the author until other evidence arises to necessitate edition;

(2)  Also in 2008, I published "Queen Hatshepsut is Queen Sheba".   That 'essay' has also been updated over the years and is regarded as current (April 2017) by the author until other evidence arises to necessitate edition;

(3)  In 2009, four years after completing the 4th edition of the book entitled Memphis, Merneptah and Ramesses And the Winged Disk of Judah an 'essay' summarising tne book is published here.  Written by Don Stewart after decades of research into the issues raised in the two essays of 2008, this book is freely available by accessing the URL:

In 2011, I began publishing an 'essay' via this blog under the heading "Middle East Political Upheavals 2011".  This is a running or continuing commentary on the chaos of the Middle East (as specially defined above) commencing from the so-called "Arab Spring" of 2011.   This is the 'Essay' which Google search engines generally open to unless one specifically searches for the other essays.  Because events are moving quickly, the comments under "Middle East Political Upheavals 2011" are far more frequently edited or updated.  Readers need to note the date at which the essay is updated.  However, for a detailed analysis of what is going on around the world, one needs to access the "Key Event" files also at

The Middle East Crises involving destructive wars in Iraq, Syria, Yemen, Libya, Sudan and the regional civil wars raging in large countries like Congo Kinshasha,  are now well into their sixth year of operation.  As at 3 A[ril 2017, a comparitive quiet has descended on Syria as Russia, Turkey and Kazakhstan attempt to broker peace in Syria.  There has been no success in the Syrian peace talks in Astana Kazakhstan and now a fifth Geneva Round has broken down.  Further afield, friction rages in Afghanistan, Nagorno Karabakh (Armenia-Azerbaijan), Ukraine (heating up again in late February 2017), South Sudan, Central African Republic and Nigeria (Boko Haram).  About 63 million refugees are swarming around these regions.  Many of them are flooding into Europe and any other place they can try to get to such as Australia.

One is now commenting on these and other events related to these disturbing times in "Key Events" which are located in the above URL.

Across the world, Shiite Muslims and other Islamic factions are being stirred up because they believe their Messiah the Mahdi is coming to bring order out of the coming or developing chaos.  "Mahdi" is a play on words for Mohammad and the ancient Egyptian term "Maat" (bringing 'order out of chaos').  However, their ideas about a Mahdi-Messiah essentially derive from Biblical prophecy about the return of Jesus of Nazareth.  He will soon establish the Kingdom of God rejected by Israel's leadership in AD 30.  Now that the Jews are returning to Israel, we are on the way to seeing fulfillment of God's Kingdom Plan offered to the AD 30 Generation of Israel.  Of course this Kingdom also benefits pre-Church Saints and this era's Church of Christ saints.  However, primarily the Kingdom still belongs to Israel when that nation eventually acknowledges the fmistake by its AD 30 generation whose leaders refused to accept Jesus of Nazareth as Messiah of Israel and Saviour of the World from its Sin.  This is a matter of Faith but, from this perspective, one day, Israel will invoke the prayers of Isaiah 53, Zechariah 12 and Hosea 6:1, and other passages, to usher in the return of The Christ.

"Key Events" examines current day issues from these perspectives as well as from others such as the implications emanating from Adam's fatal decision to consume (Hebrew 'acol, 'a all' or '@') from the Tree of Knowledge (Science and Technology).   "Key Events" also uses the results of revised chronology outlined in the three essays written in 2008 (2) and 2009 (1) as noted above.  The events in the countries listed above are almost certainly a pre-amble to the Ezekiel 38:1 to 39:16 prophecy about one of the two Gog-Magog invasions that threaten Israel according to Biblical Prophecy (Ezekiel then Revelation).

In January 2017, in Paris, seventy nations resolved to declare that Jerusalem should be an "International city".   The irony here is that in Biblical times the nations went to Jerusalem to witness each year the slaughter of seventy bulls for the sins of each nation.  In the Millennial Mesianic Kingdom in the probably-near future the nations will once again come to Jerusalem to observe the Festival of Tabernacles (revamped for the Messianic-Millennial Kingdom);  or else they will not get rain that year.

While the nations currently conspire to frustrate God's Plan for the nation of Israel, and befpre it repents of its decision regarding Jesus of Nazareth in AD 30, God is quietly lining many nations up for punishment.  Their Secular, Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Protestant, Hindu, Muslim, Confucian, Communist and Buddhist leaders are blissfully unaware of what the One True God plans to do!     On 18 January 2017, Hamas, Fatah and a jihadist organisation resolved in Moscow to re-unite perhaps encouraged by the seventy nations' resolution in Paris on 15 January 2017.  Muslims too are ranged against Israel.  But world developments at present suggest the other groups against Israel are allying to crush, reduce, sanitize and re-educate Islamicists.  Hindus, Bhuddists, Secularists, Roman Catholics etc, et al, have no 'love' for Islam.   As Confucian-Communist China and Eastern Orthodox / Secular- Russia continue to block resolutions in the UN Security Council aimed at censoring Syria's Assad for war crimes and chemical weapon usage, one has to ask if there is not some sort of hidden agenda in there (at the UN) aimed at sanitizing Islam!  Of course, since Westphalia in 1648 the world governance system has been sanitizing genuine Bible-based Christianity.

We await two trumps.

Firstly, President-elect Trump's suggestion that the US Embassy to Israel should be shifted to Jerusalem.  The so-called 'Palestinians' are very unhappy about this.  Perhaps those developments just referred to incite a decision as per "Gog's" plan in Ezekiel chapters 38-9.  The reconstructed history referred to led to a reconstructed map of the world in the days of Ezekiel's prophecy (600 BC).  That new map shows that the alliance of nations that invades Israel in the First Gog-ite invasion corresponds to those currently in turmoil from Morocco to Afghanistan and from the Caucasus to Congo Kinshasha (formerly "Zaire").

The other 'Trump' we await is found in I Corinthians 15:52 and I Thessalonians 4:16 

Email Don at

Phone Don at  00 64 210 2989 320;  or 0210 2989 320 within NZ

Landline phone  00 64 4 384 7648; 04 384 7648 within NZ

Don's Other Blog (re Mary Magdalene):

3 April, 2017

Tuesday, 13 January 2009

Memphis, Merneptah and Ramesses And the Winged Disk of Judah

The title of my first book is Memphis, Merneptah and Ramesses And the Winged Disk of Judah. The book is an analysis of William Flinders Petrie's excavation reports of his archaeological diggings at Memphis Egypt between 1908 and 1914.  For a free copy, please download from the following URL/address: 

or email me at  The size is 47.8 MB.  You may get best results by using your browser facility "Save Target as File" because of thr size and complexity of this document.  I had been working on my book about Queen Hatshepsut-Sheba. If we can confirm this woman who ruled Egypt and Ethiopia was the same "Queen of Ophir" (Africa) who came to see Solomon in circa 950 BC, we will effectively dismantle the whole chronology currently used by Egyptologists to explain ancient Egypt's 'political' history. Also affected will be those of the many countries that dealt with Egypt in the Biblical Period. The stakes are high.

However, I stumbled across Petrie's excavation reports and realised he had actually found "Pithom and Ramesses" (Exodus 1:11). The conclusion I came to after studying them was that:
  • Pithom and Ramesses were two capital cities of ancient Egypt on the same site in two different eras (1500 and 600 BC), not two cities in the same era (1500 or 1300 BC) in two different sites.
As my study of these reports progressed, I also realised that Dr Velikovsky's apparently outrageous suggestion that the 19th and 26th dynasties were the same was precisely the problem affecting Professor Petrie's attempts at making sense of the stratigraphy at Memphis. He kept finding Ramesses II and Merneptah (19th dynasty, circa 1250-1200 BC) in the same level that Apries-Hophra (26th dynasty, circa 650-580) was supposed to occupy. Actually, instead of finding material linked to Apries-Hophra much more abundant than Merneptah's era, Petrie found things the other way around. I realised Merneptah's full name or Merneptah Baenre Meriamun Hotephir-maat provides the basis for the Hebrew and Greek "Hophra-Apries". Also, "hotephir-maat" is better written "Ho'ephir-maat". The 't' simply instructs the reader to emphasise both vowels. Of course, many readers will read "hotephir-maat".

These simple observations enabled me to see where ancient and modern historians went wrong. Thinking 'Pithom and Ramesses' (or "Raamses") of Exodus 1:11 indicated a king called "Ramesses" was contemporary with Moses, Egyptologists and historians before them placed Ramesses II and his son Merneptah in the 13th century BC after initially placing them in the 16th. Bible scholars later followed suit and shifted Moses from 1500 BC (at the Exodus) to 1300 to 1200 BC although that range proved difficult to sustain. Even Jewish monitors of the Hebrew calendar seem to have incorporated this 250-year re-adjustment into their age-old calendar (Year 5774 as at July 2014) which explains why it is about 244 years short of Usher's 4004 BC for Adam.

A close look at the Hebrew text of Genesis 47:11, Exodus 1:11, 14:2, Numbers 33:7, Jeremiah 44:1 and 46:14, revealed that later redactions where old scrolls were replaced and updated for changes in geographical and political circumstances, necessitated allowable but very slight amendments for clarity (c.f., Judges 19:10, I Chronicles 11:4). In 600 BC, Pithom became known as Ramesses. When the Carthaginians and Phoenicians had control of the city it became known as Migdol or Israel's nickname for "Tyre" (or Tower/Turret).

However, the verb 'to build' in the text of Exodus 1:11 necessitated the Israelites had to actually build both cities. How could this be possible unless two different sites were envisaged? By recognising they could be the same site but in two different eras and probably under different ruling powers, even foreign powers. The Hebrew language-text allows for this conclusion. The special definite article the scribes used for "the" in 'The Pithom and The Raamses' is the Hebrew eth (aleph, tav). It's technically or grammatically unnecessary or superfluous in this context. A definite article is not really needed in Exodus 1:11 anyway. The normal, more common or regular 'he' (the Hebrew letter for 'h') would suffice if a definite article was desired or thought necessary. This word (eth or the) is composed from the first and last Hebrew alphabetic letters (signs). Actually, in Exodus 4:8, 8:23 and 12:13 the word for sign (properly aleph, vav, tav) is also eth, the vav or 'u' being omitted. This suggests the scribes were also showing Israelites built Pithom (or Pit-mem = Mem-phit = Memphis) in 1500 BC (in the first place), and Raamses-Migdol, in the Phoenician-Carthaginian era, from circa 610 to 586 BC (in the last place). The latter Israelites were the 'renegade folk from Judah' trying to 'escape from Nebuchadnezzar'. Those, at any rate, were the words that Jeremiah, Israel's most unpopular prophet, gave to them.

A very difficult conundrum that has bedevilled scholars seems to be solved by this simple paradigm:

  • "Pithom and Raamses" were two cities on the same site (Memphis-Pithom) built in two different eras by the same ethnic group (Israelites); not two different cities, on two different sites, built in the same era by Israelites.
Budge's apparently discredited dictionary of Egyptian hieroglyphs shows an entry for Heri-Pitomai which he describes as a "suburb of Memphis". Searches for Pithom, under 'P', obviously would miss this entry as seems to have been the case for a century or so.
Furthermore, it seems the last two kings of the 12th dynasty, the titles "Amenemhat" numbers III and IV, were Moses' contemporaries instead of Ramesses II or III. Putatively, "Amenemhat" means "Leader (chosen?) of God (Amun)". Amenemhat is probably a title reflecting the concept "Divine Right of Kings". This is not a mystical term. Belief in the concept led to a civil war in England between 1642-49 and might do so again one day if Parliament does not behave itself and obey the Queen's Law. The Hebrew author probably did not wish to write the capital of this king with Amun in the text, for obviously pious reasons, so he shortened it to Pi (= place of) em-hat or 'Place of the leader'. That is what a capital city is. It is the residence (place) of the King (leader), his Government and Treasury (Miskenot). Only one city can be the true capital. That's why we also need to divide "Pithom and Raamses" as the same place with different names over two (very) different eras not as two different locations in the same era. Thus Pithom is actually:
  • Pi-em-H'at, or, accounting for variations in the way letter-signs were ordered (e.g., left-right, right-left, columns);
  • Pi-Th-em = Pithom.
Similarly for Memphis:
  • Mem-phis (Greek) = Memphit (Semitic) = Phit-mem = Pithom.
H'at from both Egyptian- and Hebrew-semitic has a range of meanings through 'sign' or 'prophet' to 'leader'.

Hatshepsut-Sheba used this term to describe her title as meaning "The Sign of the Sheba of the South". Other kings also used shepses which Petrie defined as the "Ra Shepses" or "Keeper of the Records" which is what kings and queens do.

However, in Hebrew sheb is used to describe a wide range of officials sitting or administering at their desks. In Egyptian (ancient and modern) there is a confusion in hearing 'p' or 'b'. So whether we should read shep or sheb in either Hebrew or ancient Egyptian is a guessing game. Other background information accorded by a correct interpretation of history is needed to interpret these subtle difficulties.

By using the Bible's chronology, many difficult enigmas can be resolved relatively simply. The current chronological mess in modern Egyptology differs little to the banking crises sweeping the world. Modern Egyptology and modern Economics are so-called sciences but they are now virtually worthless in their current states because they either got paradigms wrong or they ignored them if true.

The Winged Disk of Judah

Merneptah, who wrote on the Israel Stele (or Merneptah Stele), "Israel's seed is destroyed; the land razed to the ground", also displayed himself worshipping Ptah with "The Behudet Winged Disk" in the background. "Behudet" is 'Pi-' or 'B-ehudah-t'. The 't' is simply a plural like 's' in English. It means the land or people of Judah-Israel. The reason why Merneptah displayed this disk, a circle with wings stretching out to the left and right, is that the angel of God who destroyed Sennacherib's army in 700 BC apparently chose not to destroy Nebuchadnezzar in 600-586 BC. Instead the Jews had to go running back to Egypt for refuge. This reversed the events of 1500 BC: in Merneptah's opinion at least.

Of course, for that to make sense, Merneptah and Ramesses have to be shifted forward by 600 to 700 years. The "Israel" in Merneptah's statement refers to Jacob-Israel the ancestor of the Israelites (or Judeans) of 586 BC. The "seed" is the descendants of Jacob. They were cut-off or castrated as the Book of Daniel implies (Daniel 1:3, 8, 9, 11 ff). The castration of the Royal family was not quite complete as Merneptah, not unreasonably under the circumstances, surmised. A cadet branch of David through his son Nathan managed to escape the cut and, quite a few generations later, this branch sired a man named Heli who fathered Mary the Mother of Jesus. And that is why this information becomes so critical. This is historical evidence for the claims of the Old (really "First") and New (really "Last")Testaments in the Bible.

What drove the inclusion of this Egyptian symbol ("The Behudet Winged Disk"), in the book's title was the publication in Biblical Archaeological Review (Vol., 28 No., 4), in an article by Robert Deutsch, of a royal seal belonging to King Hezekiah of Judah (700 BC). It had the same object as Merneptah's except it also had six sticks branching out of the central disk to indicate six wings the object had. This was the six-winged angel Isaiah the Prophet reported seeing (e.g., or c.f., Isaiah 6:2).   This is embarrassing because it confirms an angel did destroy Sennacherib's army. There is no enigma to what happened at the end of the history described by the Assyrian (Lachish) frescos displayed at the British Museum.

The problem is embarrassing enough because the Israeli Antiquities Authority is trying to punish Mr Deutsch by convicting him for antiquities fraud. However, the real frauds, it would seem, are the chronologists in the Academy.

If you are interested in discussing this or want to talk to me about the issues, please email me at or phone 00 64 0210 298 9320 (vodafone network, New Zealand).   Also search my files at:

3 April, 2017

Wednesday, 31 December 2008

Queen Hatshepsut is Queen Sheba

The following is a quasi-simultaneous equation proof that Queen Sheba who visited Solomon of Israel in circa 950 BC was Queen Hatshepsut of Egypt's 18th dynasty.

I am now going public with the following claims:

'Hatshepsut' means "The Sign of the Sheba of the South";

The temple she built at Deir el-Bahari was constructed to reflect the words of Song of Solomon 2:14, 'You are in the clefts of the rock, in the secret places of the stairs'; and

The Tanaach's ('Old Testament') Queen Sheba of Ophir (I Kings 9:28 and 10:1) equates with Josephus Flavius' 'Egypt and Ethiopia' and the New Testament's 'Queen of the South'.

This sets the original Velikovsky thesis that 'Sheba is Hatshepsut' into a quasi mathematical framework like three sets of simultaneous equations solving unknown variables that appear in different sets of data.

A crucial development has been the announcement of "Punt merchandise discovered by Kathryn Bard and Rodolfo Fattovich on Egypt's Red Sea coast." Clearly this indicates it had been shipped bound for Lower Egypt from Lebanon or Israel.

A second and rather surprising development from a re-reading of the Hebrew text and grammar is the identification of Ophir (= Africa) as the geographical origin for Queen Sheba as stated in the Biblical record (actual Hebrew text).

These two new developments have pushed this framework into the position of virtual proof that Sheba and Hatshepsut are the same queen.

Egyptologists generally explain that 'Hat-shep-sut', or their preferred 'Hat-sheps-ut', means 'Foremost of Noble Women'. I agree 'Hat' can mean 'foremost' but it also means 'Sign', 'Leader' or 'Prophet'. However, if 'sheps' is translated "a noble", the suffix 'ut' being a determinative for a female plural, it possibly requires one to read what is actually an Egyptian 'sheb' as 'shep'. Quite often this is an issue because Egyptians then and now experience difficulty saying 'p' and tend to pronounce it as 'b'. However, whatever the reading really should be, the hieroglyphic determinative of a seated person strongly suggests that the Biblical word sheb sometimes translated "sit", is a better basis for studying the etymology of "sheb" as in 'Hat-Sheba-Sut' or "shep" as in 'Hat-Shepa-Sut'. It's also a better basis than a reading sepa (soper, scribe) which was our initial premise. As it happens, our initial premise can still be supported by Petrie’s discovery, a century ago, of the Office of the Records Keeper, the ‘Ra Shepses’. In the 'Ra Shepses', Petrie also reads 'p' rather than 'b'.

Whichever way we look at the etymology of shepa, seba, shepa or sepa administrators are normally seated (root word s-b) at a desk issuing or writing (root word s-p) orders, laws, decrees and other administrative communications. However, if the root word sheb was indicated by the ancient Egyptian scribe then the meaning 'noble woman' (presumably sheps) becomes even more dubious. It now seems far better to acknowledge this woman was the queen who administered (as in sheb) Egypt and Ethiopia.

Egypt and Ethiopia (including Sudan), constituting the ancient civilisation of Africa (Ophir, Auphirah), are 'South' of Israel of course. Hence the meaning 'Sut' as in Sut-en-bat (South and North) of ancient Egypt (Suten = Sudan). Thus a Sheba was one who ruled or oversaw a dominion, city, empire or group of soldiers (e.g., King David's Yo-Sheba-dech, II Samuel 23:8). Therefore, 'Hat-sheb-sut' means 'The Sign of the Queen (Law-maker) of the South' (variables; sign, queen, south).

Hatshepsut-Sheba was so awestruck by Solomon's temple that she ordered the construction of a copy specially located in a site (Deir el-Bahari, near Thebes) to reflect the words in Song of Solomon 2:14 (variables; clefts in the rock, secret tunnels, stairs).

Josephus Flavius, Gospels of Matthew/Luke and I Kings 9:28 to I Kings 10:1, all refer to the same geographical location (variables; Egypt/Ethiopia, The South, Auphirah-Ophir=Africa=Egypt/Ethiopia).

Finally, the Ethiopians named their Queen Sheba as 'Makara'. Hatshepsut's alternative name is Maat-Kare (pronounced Makare). In the Bible, “Shammah .. the Hararite" (2 Samuel 23:11) is Shammah the Harodite in 2 Samuel 23:25 and Hadar son of Ishmael in Genesis 25:15 is Hadad in I Chronicles 1:30. There are several other Biblical examples of this mistake showing that corresponding transcription errors confusing similar letters like resh and daleth in Hebrew and Phoenician occurred when the Ethiopians transcribed Hatshepsut's other hieroglyphic title i.e., 'Maatkare' or 'Makare' from Egyptian into the Ethiopian 'Makeda'.

The null hypothesis is that if we can find the body or mummy of Hatshepsut, then she cannot be Queen Sheba because this woman became a saint when she stopped believing her pagan Egyptian gods in favour of Jehovah of Israel. It is accepted that the bodies of saints are not disturbed on the basis of Rest-in-Peace. If Hatshepsut is not Sheba, then someone in Antiquity wanted to make it look as though she was. That raises even more difficult questions regarding the identity of the queen who built the temple at Deir el-Bahari. The temple was deliberately buried in rubble by Hatshepsut's successors. Only by 1948, ironically the year of Israel's resurrection, was the temple properly cleared and its hieroglyphs evaluated. Queen Sheba (Queen of the South) is identified in the Gospels as rising at the Resurrection and condemning the Jewish Academy which rejected the Messianic claims of Jesus. If we can identify Hatshepsut as Sheba, there are massive implications. That's probably why so much is invested in disguising her actual identity.

I am available for consultation at 00-64-0210 298 9320 or at or you can download my book, Memphis, Merneptah and Ramesses and the Winged Disk of Judah at:

3 April, 2017

Reconstructing Ancient Egyptian History

My name is Don Stewart.  To access all my research files please go to:

I am a former economist who is currently researching and writing about the reconstruction of ancient Middle Eastern History. There is mounting concern that Egyptologists and Archaeologists, and many 'experts' in other disciplines within The Academy have been knowingly suppressing the truth about chronology. Myself and others believe we can now prove that only a few of the dynasties that are said to have ruled Egypt (and Ethiopia-Sudan-Numibia) actually did. Furthermore, we believe there is now good evidence to show that Egypt's dynasties did not begin until circa 2200 BC.
  • Dynasties I-V (1-5) circa 2200-1950 BC gave way to Dynasties XI and XII (11 and 12) which presumably firstly welcomed the Jewish Patriarch Jacob (XIth, circa 1900 BC) and family (including Joseph who had already arrived there as a slave) then secondly, or later, persecuted them (XIIth, circa 1700-1500 BC). The last two pharaohs of the XIIth Dynasties were Amenemhat III who ruled for about 43 years and Amenemhat IV who presumably was pharaoh when the Red Sea disaster destroyed the Egyptian army.  Israel's Moses had to wait 40 years in the deserts of "Midian" (Medina) as he sat out  the long reign of Amenemhat III.  Three XIth dynasty kings named "Inyotef" or "Inyosef" or "Joseph" attest to the Biblical statement that "Joseph was a father to pharaoh" because the grateful Montuhotep I (first king of the XIth dynasty) named his son and heir after Joseph whose ability to interpret Montuhotep's dreams saved Egypt and many other countries from the effects of a seven-year famine.  Inyotef I and II likewise named their heirs "Joseph".  These two consecutive dynasties fit the requirement for the first to have kings named "Joseph" and for the next or second to have a king who lived for forty years to accommodate Moses' long 40-year vigil as a refugee in the Arabian deserts.  Only the XIth and XII meet these conditions assuming it is agreed they have been placed in the wrong centuries by the orthodox chronology.  No matter what century is given to the XVIII and XIX (18th and 19th) dynasties or dynasties XVII and XX which preceded or followed them, these dynasties simply cannot fit those two conditions.  They have no kings named "Joseph", although Rameses II of dynasty XIX  did rule for about 40 years.  The problem then is that the XIX was succeeded by the XX and Ramesses III with no massive intervening disasters as happened after the XIIth.
  • For 400-450 years [dynasties VII to X (7-10) and XIII to XVI (13-16)] circa 1500-1050 BC, the Hyksos (the Biblical Amalekites) then ransacked and overran the country until Kings Saul (circa 1040-1000) and David of Israel (circa 1000-970), probably assisted by the Ethiopians from the South, defeated Amalek-Hyksos. That defeat led to a friendship between the kingdoms of Egypt united with Ethiopia under the famous XVIII Dynasty (18th), Israel ruled by David and Solomon and the Phoenician city-states led by Hirams I and II of Tyre. Queen Hatshepsut [The Sign (H'at) of the Sheba (Shep) of the South (Sut)] was the Queen Sheba who left Egypt on a state visit to Israel and Phoenicia (Punt) in circa 950 BC.
  • After the demise of the XVIIIth Dynasty under Akhenaten and Tutenkhamen (circa 800 BC) and the demise of the divided kingdom of Israel which had earlier split into the North (Samaria) and South (Judah) in circa 930 BC, the Middle East gradually sank into decadence. A disaster in Iraq (Babylon, Sumer, Shinar, Mesopotamia) involving the failure of the fresh water systems (Euphrates and Tigris) to prevent salts destroying the soils, led to another exodus, this time of the Kurds or Chaldeans (a.k.a. Hittites) from Southern Iraq. The Assyrian city states merged into a powerful force in the wake of this crisis and they settled the refugee Kurd-Chaldeans in their current location (North Iraq, Iran and Turkey).
  • These destabilising forces led to the Chaldeans allying with the Scythians and Medes and destroying Assyria in circa 620 BC. Tyre and North Israel had been subjugated by Assyria. Egypt, prostrate after the demise of the XVIIIth Dynasty, and subject to invasions of Ethiopians or Carthaginians ('Libyans' or 'Phoenicians'), had looked to Assyria for support. The XIX Dynasty under Sety and Ramesses the Great emerged, possibly with Assyrian assistance, to control Egypt from circa 670 to 580 BC after which the foreigners Nebuchadnezzar the Chaldean, the Persians (500 BC), Greeks (300 BC) and Romans took over for good.
  • We submit that Ramesses the Great ruled Egypt from circa 650-610 BC not 1250 BC as is believed under the orthodox chronology. We believe this is proved by the fact that his successor Merneptah Baenre Meriamun Hotephirmaat (The Hophra of Jeremiah 44:30) wrote the famous Israel or Merneptah Stele which said, "Israel's Seed is destroyed; The Land razed to the ground". That statement could only be true of Israel in 610-586 BC when the Chaldeans after three successive invasions finally wiped the place out. Jeremiah's Lamentations is the parallel account to the Merneptah Stele. Merneptah did not write it in 1210 BC but in circa 586 BC if not that very year.
If you are interested in discussing this problem in our studies of History or in doing something about it, I look forward to your comments or suggestions by telephoning me at 00 64 0210 298 9320,  or by looking at my "Blessings" and other research material including the "3_D Aleph-Tav Bible Study course developed from the revised history and Hebrew Perspective in:

or email me at

3 April, 2017